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SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND BIOPOSITIVE CONSTRUCTION (English version)

Anton Sutyagin®2012-2014

projectpgs@gmail.com

Modern society, standing on a high technical and technological level, faced with the fact that the existing commodity-money relations ("the invisible hand of the market") ceased to properly manage the economic development of society. Although our world is awash with the necessary resources, to ensure a normal life for all mankind, the practice of rationing resources through monetary methods results (and led) to opposite results.

"Over time ... mankind has wrestled with the ever-growing demand and the ability of the biosphere to provide them, without being destroyed. This poses the mankind before the fact of a global ecological catastrophe in the future socio-economic development"[6].

Mathematician S. Podolinsky, in his time, introduced the definition: "mastracchio energy" - parasitic group in the century ahead of the rest of the inhabitants of the Earth energy [7]. He proposed to calculate the intellectual and physical labour as a measure of the energy of the Sun and natural resources of the Earth.

The concept of a resource-based economy appeared and developed through the work of engineer Jacque Fresco and the Venus project. In the modern sense of a Resource-based economy, which is developed through proper accounting of consumed resources (energy return on investment, material investment profitability see below). The efficiency of this economy is based primarily on the technology of resource management [2]. The idea of a resource-based economy is inextricably linked with the use of renewable energy sources, and those that do not pollute the environment.

In the area of enabling (grade, biodegradable) the human environment idea of resource-related economy is embodied in the concept of sustainable construction.

"Sustainable construction is understood as the creation and responsible maintaining a healthy artificial habitat, based on the efficient use of natural resources and environmental principles" [4].

"The goal of sustainable construction and design is the creation of healthy life sustainable cities sustainable regions and countries, in a sustainable society, or the sustainable development of society" [8]. The term sustainable use as opposite to the term catastrophic in relation to the concept of "Man - Nature" (or "Nature - Man").

Creation grade, biodegradable habitat is a process and the goal of sustainable development. Next, we will try to sort out which parts formed the concept grade, biodegradable environment.

Our review does not claim to be exhaustive as to the views of artificial inhabitancy of the person in the modern world is so new and require extensive mathematical and scientific justification.

1. The house, as part of an environment.

The house, as a material object that is part of the material (natural) environment. The house consists of objects of the material environment and affect the surrounding nature. So the house is a consumer (absorber) natural resource. Processing of these resources. And as shows the disappointing experience of mankind - the gravedigger of these resources. The cultural layers of the ancient cities - it is a "graveyard" of material resources, ever used by man. They lie multimeter layers and remind us of the enormous work that had been carried people to recycle and to use for their needs as part of planet Earth. Not covered ever entire planet such "cultural" layer?


Buildings serve as havens for people and shelter them from the elements of nature. The house is the roof for many. The house is a part of public action. Remember the Basilica - type ancient buildings, which were used as places of trade, justice, and later times to worship. That is, they were public place. Features of the building are identical and are derived from the function of public purpose buildings (public ideas). It is possible to find an analogue in the theory of three childbirth things Plato: the eternal ideas; and the changing specific things and space in which things exist.

If there is a social need (social idea), it is a building - material object. If the public function of the building changed, or is exhausted, the building is reconstructed or destroyed.

The area in which the sphere of interaction of society and nature crossed in which rational human activity becomes a determining factor of the development is called the noosphere. How would we like to think - the noosphere - a new, higher stage of evolution of the biosphere. "... In the biosphere, there is great geological, perhaps, cosmic force, planetary which is usually not taken into account in the concept of space... This force is the human mind, directed and organized by the will of him as being public" [3].

Reasonable activity assumes a reasonable use of natural and energy resources at the disposal of the person. Recently it was proposed to use as assess the viability of projects not money (monetary) equivalent, and energy and resource equivalents:

EROI - energy return on investment - how much energy should be invested to obtain one unit of energy output.

MROI - material return on investment - how much material (resources) should be invested to obtain one unit of product output.

There is also the combination of EROI and MROI - EMROI.

For more details see [1].

Resource economy - the reduction of material costs for the production of the final product use, to the amount, which consumes a living being in their natural habitat.

Thus, the development of the human race is becoming more stable - this is the meaning of the term sustainable development.



For the last time in the world built a lot of green buildings. Here are some of them:

● High-rise building of The Pearl River Tower (Guangzhou, China), height 310m.

● High-rise building 340 on the Park (Chicago, USA), height m.

● High-rise building of The Bahrain World Trade Center (Manama, Bahrain), height of 240 m

● High-rise building of The Hearst Tower, new York, USA), height of 182 m

● High-rise building of Bank of America (new York, USA), height of 288 meters

● Building Co-operative Insurance (CIS) Tower (Manchester, England), height of 118 m.

● Residential building Urban Cactus (Rotterdam, The Netherlands)

The use of a number of environmental technologies led to the inclusion of these buildings are in the category of green:

● Use of wind turbines located in a specially constructed openings in the volume of the building. At the moment the device is similar to the turbines provides up to 15% of the demand for consumption of the building.

● Device special glazing governing the reflection and heat loss of the building.

● Installation of solar electric panels and solar collectors for water heating).

● Device on the roof of the building devices for the collection of rain and melt water, which, as a rule, is used for watering plants (located in the building, and in the streets around the building. Furthermore, the water can be used for cooling systems and air conditioning of buildings.

● Special ventilation system in which not only cleared incoming from the street the air, but the air outside. The cleaning is done, including, and from carbon dioxide.

Analyzing adjusted green buildings Can highlight the main technical-technological principle grade, biodegradable building - minimization or zero power consumption from external sources (zero power consumption). This is possible to trace the main development trend grade, biodegradable technologies - creation of energy independence of areas of habitat.

2. Grade, biodegradable technology of construction of buildings

Another name grade, biodegradable technology - Natural technologies.

These are technologies that require a minimal amount of energy, and/or make use of renewable energy sources. Subdivided into:

● Regular technology with optimization of the construction work, by minimizing energy consumption (directly and/or through resources).

● The technology that makes use of local (intolerable) sources of energy or natural impacts (mestopolojenie energy sources).

● Traditional local technology.

● Work communities: the joint labour of the residents of one of one settlement.

In this list you can enable reconstruction in view of grade, biodegradable technology of construction of buildings. Of course, if the reconstruction is the lowest possible cost and with a significant improvement of the functional qualities of the building.

Can be identified separately, as part of the grade, biodegradable technology, the following directions:

● Use non-hazardous waste materials for manufacturing of separate elements of buildings.

● Construction on the barren lands:

●●careers

●●technogenic zones

●●former technological and military facilities

●●untapped technological "emptiness" (under bridges, retaining walls, inter-farm space, etc.)

● "gunning" biomass.

● Underground construction: the maximum possible engineering equipment and auxiliary premises.

● Use natural landscape elements: caves, hollows, slopes, ravines, valleys, hills, etc.

● Create artificial landscape elements:

●●lock or unlock the embankment

●●plantations

●●AV system gabions

We should not forget that it is unwise to use grade, biodegradable technology, only for the sake of using them. All should be guided by common sense.

For example, consider the internal relationship and limitations:

● mud walls - dry media content.

● straw walls - biodeterioration.

● paper - fire protection.


3. Grade, biodegradable technology operation of buildings (grade, biodegradable space-planning decision).

Main principle of functioning grade, biodegradable building consists of two interrelated parts;

First grade: biodegradable house must create a secure and blagopriatnoe environment for life and health of the person.

Secondly: While not carry a negative impact on the natural environment.

The implementation of these principles can be implemented in different ways:

● Correct layout (planning) of the house, the orientation of the building relative to the Sun and the prevailing wind direction.

● Lack of harmful emissions or emissions during operation.

● Use of equipment until the full physical wear. The use of buildable parts of old equipment (without significant alterations) to perform useful functions. No definition of "obsolescence".

● Differential thermal insulation of buildings. Recently, because of "thoughtless" using new technologies, we have a problem "periuterine" buildings, which led to unreasonable increase of construction costs [5]. Maintaining useful cool microclimate (12-13 degree C at night, 16-18 degree C day).

● Use of part or all of the buildings to perform other functions (dual function). Part of the building or the building as a whole) is used to perform public or additional technical-technological functions. For example: building a retaining wall, the use of the roof terrace of another building (or the roof-garden, roof-reservoir for collection of rain water and the like).

Separately there is a question of give the building an intelligent functions. On this subject there is a sufficient amount of literature. Let's dwell on some aspects of the use of this approach.

Installation and operation of the digital home should not enter into contradiction with the General requirement of bipozitional - minimum resource and energy consumption for construction and operation of buildings. At the present stage the level of energy consumption for production of equipment of "a smart home" is still quite high, that would certainly talk about "green" nature "smart" technologies. There is a humanitarian and ethical problem of "smart" technologies of reduction of the level of human control of decisions affecting their own life. In the opinion of the author, in a historical perspective of the full use of "smart" technologies can lead to degradation of humanity as a sentient species. Similar issues are now engaged in England Ph.D. Hugh price, a specialist in the field of astrophysics Martin Rice and one of the founders of Skype Jan Tallinn. They took up the study of the question of the coming enslavement of the people of intelligent machines.

There are interesting examples of the incarnation grade, biodegradable technology.

Bill Mollison (and even earlier, and a German engineer and architect Otto Frei) suggested the use of trees and shrubs as a load-bearing and enclosing parts of the building (the so-called permaculture).

The group of Norwegian architects develops residential grade, biodegradable house as part of the ecosystem. The project has received the name metabolic house, and according to the developers, should function as a living organism (automatically adjust the humidity, temperature, heat balance, reduce pollution indoors, to monitor the wellbeing of people living in it, and others). After the expiration of its construction are included in the natural decomposition process.

4. Grade, biodegradable materials

The basic requirements: the lack of emission and discharge in natural environment.

1. Natural (local)
Main feature - is either on the construction site itself, or in "step availability from it.

● clay

● the clay raw

● the ground

● plaster

● “gunned" biomass

2. Natural renewable

● tree

● straw

● cane

● products of vital activity of the animal world

3. Artificially - renewable

● tree (as processed products)

● planting of trees as columns.

● Capacity calcium walls on a metal grid in sea water

4. Material-recycling subjects

● partially concrete

● partly brick

●glass

● secondary aluminium

● waste paper (cardboard, paper)

● wood (wood chipboard, OSB - the issue of energy efficiency

5. Structurally-recycling subjects
- the use of whole elements of old constructions for later use both in the same quality as new elements with new functions;

● prefabricated slabs etc. elements (20-30% recycling)

● wooden structures (almost 100% recycled)

● steel elements (50-70% recycling)

● dismantled brick (partially)

● elements of monolithic structures, partially fittings

non-biodegradable materials materials:
non-renewable energy-intensive materials (reinforced concrete, steel, primary aluminium, the number of plastic).

5. Construction of bionics.

Construction bionics (it has the same principle of nature-likeness) called applied science on the application in architectural practice principles of the organization, the functions and structures of living nature.

The forerunner of the construction of bionics is a scientific work Swiss Professor of anatomy of the Hermann Von Meyer, written in the mid 19th century. Von Meyer examined the bone structure of the femoral head in the place where it bent and angle included in the joint. Von Meyer found that the head bones covered with a sophisticated network of tiny seed, thanks to which the load is an amazing way redistributed to bone. This network had strict geometrical structure, which Professor documented.

In 1866, a Swiss engineer Carl Cullman summed up the theoretical basis for the opening von Meyer, but 20 years later load balancing using bent natural structures was used by the Eifel in his famous creation.

Some researchers refer to the bionic architecture and works of Antoni Gaudi. The architectural forms of constructions known Spanish (Catalan) architect really echo the forms of wildlife.

Another Spanish architect Santiago Calatrava Valls began to use the bionic principle not only for the creation prirodovedenie form of buildings, but also used it for structural design.

It should be noted British architect sir Nicholas Grimshaw with his Eden project overlap Botanical garden in Cornwall (UK), and sir Norman Foster with the project "Cucumber" - Tower Mary-Ex (30 St Mary Axe) in the centre of London (UK).

Construction bionics began to gain popularity in the 60s of last century. But they did not yet widespread, due to the absence of technical and economic advantages over traditional designs. Currently, bionics is in the process of formation, and its research component prevails over practice. In the framework grade, biodegradable concept bionic structure should be used only if they do not contradict the principles grade, biodegradable construction: minimization of energy and material resources.

Concomitant direction, although not repeating the bionics, is the practice of erecting traditional national dwellings in modern construction.

Traditional national dwellings, as well as possible satisfy the principles grade, biodegradable construction. Here are the main of them:

● House - wooden dwelling Russians

● Wigwam - home of the Indians of North America

● Hogan - tree-soil dwelling, Navajo

● Straw huts - Indians of South America

● Cottage (hut) - stone structure Georgia

● Sharif - a hut made of stone in Iraq

● Icelandic sod house

● Adobe housing for inhabitants of Central Asia

● Yurt - dwelling nomadic peoples of the steppe areas of Eurasia

● Al Kaimah - old house of jute - United Arab Emirates

● Chalet – Switzerland

 

6. Engineering equipment of buildings

In the last decade there is a tendency to equip grade, biodegradable building technologies under the General definition of a smart house. Under smart house " means the aggregate technologies air conditioning, automatic on / off light, automatic window shadowing, tracking the building, turning it over the sun, the equipment of the building of the latest telecommunications technologies, etc. is also Possible installation in the building of the equipment for determination and maintenance of normal psychophysical state of living in the house of the people. Discusses make furniture and household appliances adaptive functions in relation to man.

However, in our opinion, the engineering equipment of the house will develop in the direction of natural technologies:

● Use of natural energy sources (T.M. masturibating), or energy, are not involved in the main processes (idling energy).

● Use of space-planning decisions, minimizing the length of the engineering systems in the house.

● Minimization of motors-house equipment.

● Use gravitational principle in the movement of liquids and gases involved in the house.

● Natural refrigerators (so-called glaciers).

● Use of geothermal geothermal heat in winter and cooling in summer.

● Use permeable (breathable material).


7. The lifecycle of a building

The life cycle of a building (construction) is called the entire period of the existence and functioning of a building from the initial design to the moment of disposal.

Periods of the life cycle of the building:

I - the Whole complex of design works.

II - Development of technologies and organization of production of works.

III - the Erection of the construction of the building.

IV - Pre-mastering of the building.

V - operation of the building according to its purpose.

VI - Maintenance of operational suitability of a building by carrying out of scheduled preventive repairs and overhauls.

VII - Conclusion of the building of the operation.

VIII - a) Full disassembly (disposal) of a building with a renovation of the building plot to bring it to the level of the natural environment of the countryside, where was located the building.

b) Reconstruction of the building or restoring the same operational functions, or to give the building a new operational functions.

With the end of the period of the 8th ends the life cycle of the building, and perhaps begin a new life cycle.

In the analysis of the life cycle of a building it is necessary to take into account the following:
● Much energy and raw materials will be used as solid, liquid, gaseous wastes will be formed at each stage of the life cycle. However, there is a possibility to take into account the volume of secondary pollution and costs: for example, the energy required for bricks or processing of wastes.

● Compare the environmental impact of the use of any material, component, technology in the framework of a specific project.

● Find resource - efficient grade, biodegradable materials or products.

● Evaluate the permissible limits of the ecological characteristics of building materials and components for the specific project.

● Choose the material, component or technology, the use of which is preferable because of the impact on the environment.

Categories of environmental impact:
● climatic impacts (emissions to air, water and soil)

● link (oxidation) of oxygen

● photochemical smog

● particular violation of biological diversity

● terrestrial and aquatic toxic emissions

● the depletion of natural resources

● violation of land use

● depletion of water resources

Each material, process and resources versed on these categories in order to estimate the total impact on nature in the present and in the process of operation.

The main factors that you should consider when grade, biodegradable construction are:

● The utilization of the building

● Transfer home of all or part of the new place

● Lengthening the life cycle of the building

● Increasing role reconstruction (ecological restoration)

                                             ● ● ●

A series of environmental and systemic crises of great humanity, forced to seek new, balanced approaches to life. Using grade, biodegradable principles in the construction of buildings would save the Earth for future generations.

                                             ● ● ●

LITERATURE

1. Ragnarsdottir K. V., Sverdrup H. U., Koca D. 2011b. Assessing long term sustainability of global supply of natural resources and materials, Chapter Number X, 20-46. In; Sustainable Development.
2. "Resource-based economic growth, past and present", Gavin Wright and Jesse Czelusta, Stanford University, June 2002.
3. V.I. Vernadsky. "Autotrofos of mankind".
4. 2nd international conference "Construction and environment". The materials. Paris, 1997.
5. V.A.Kondratenko "Thermal protection of the exterior walls: luxury or necessity?" the journal "Construction engineering" №8, 2006.
6. The concept of sustainable development and security issues. 2001. (Ursul A.D., Romanovich A.L.).
7. S.A.Podolinsky "Labor of man and his relation to energy distribution" M: White Alva, 2005, ISBN 5-7619-0194-3.
8 . A.N.Tetior. "Sustainable urban development"
.

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